Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics Through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA)
ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Consortium (enigma.ini.usc.edu). This consortium was founded in 2009 and is led by Paul Thompson (University of Southern California). Margie Wright was a founding member and is one of a number of Australian researchers who continue to play a leading role in the consortium – now a global alliance of over 500 scientists from over 200 institutions in 35 countries with brain MRI data available for >30,000 individuals (approximately a third being patients with a range of psychiatric conditions). ENIGMA is organised into working groups that examine (i) normal variation in brain structure and function within the population, for example, as related to brain plasticity, ageing, and lateralization, (ii) disease-related variation in conditions such as depression, schizophrenia, and ADHD, (iii) genomics approaches such as genome-wide association analysis and epigenetic analyses, and (iv) protocol development. Large-scale collaborative consortia such as ENIGMA herald a new era in the field of imaging genetics in which the reliability of findings is paramount.